Useful Guidance You Need To Know Prior To Getting A Payday Advance

Get urgent $ 500 Columbus Ohio within 1 hr Get $700 tonight fast wire transfer. You can also apply urgent $ 300 amount lender Charlotte, NC no credit check .

Monetary hardship is impressive more people all the time nowadays. Using the economic climate the way it is, many people have to learn their options. If you locate oneself in a abrupt monetary bind, then this cash advance might be able to enable you to. This short article will help you grow to be far better knowledgeable and educated about payday loans as well as their true expense.

Before taking the leap and choosing a payday loan, take into account other resources. The interest rates for online payday loans are great and when you have greater possibilities, try them first. Check if your family will bank loan the cash, or use a standard lender. Payday cash loans should certainly be considered a final option.

If you have to use a pay day loan as a result of a crisis, or unanticipated event, recognize that lots of people are invest an negative place using this method. Should you not use them responsibly, you might find yourself within a pattern that you simply are not able to get out of. You might be in personal debt towards the pay day loan company for a long time.

When it comes to taking out a payday advance, make sure to comprehend the settlement method. Occasionally you might have to give the lending company a article dated check that they may funds on the expected time. Other times, you are going to have to give them your bank checking account info, and they can automatically take your payment from the account.

Before you take out that cash advance, make sure you have zero other alternatives accessible to you. Online payday loans can cost you plenty in costs, so some other alternative could be a greater option to your overall financial predicament. Look for your pals, family members as well as your bank and lending institution to ascertain if there are some other probable options you possibly can make.

Look into the Better business bureau standing upright of pay day loan organizations. There are some reliable businesses available, but there are some other folks that happen to be under respected. By exploring their standing upright with the Better Organization Bureau, you happen to be supplying yourself self confidence that you are currently coping using one of the honourable types on the market.

Consider special care that you offered the company because of the correct information. Display pay stubs or another evidence of income. You need to give them the right phone number to obtain you. By providing out bogus information and facts, or not such as required information and facts, you may have a prolonged hang on before getting your loan.

If you have a financial debt to pay for, don’t try to escape from this. Their enthusiasts might be distressing while they are when you. Should you be struggling to spend your loan rear about the thanks date, get in touch with the payday advance firm and ask for more time to cover the loan back again.

If you have any beneficial products, you might want to consider consuming these with you to definitely a pay day loan company. Often, cash advance providers will let you protected a payday advance against an important object, such as a bit of fine jewelry. A guaranteed payday loan will usually have got a lower rate of interest, than an unguaranteed pay day loan.

In case you have time, ensure that you research prices to your payday advance. Every single payday advance supplier will have some other monthly interest and cost construction for his or her payday cash loans. To get the least expensive cash advance all around, you have to take the time to evaluate personal loans from diverse companies.

Require a payday loan only if you wish to protect certain costs immediately this would mostly consist of charges or medical expenditures. Usually do not go into the habit of smoking of getting payday loans. The high rates of interest could really impact your money on the long-term, and you should discover ways to stay with a spending budget instead of borrowing dollars.

If you are worried about how the cash advance will have an impact on your credit report, try to look for a cash advance loan company that lacks a credit history condition. This is an excellent choice should you have bad credit or no credit score as well as those who want this personal loan to be off of their report.

Despite the fact that nobody must be dependent exclusively on pay day loans to acquire them by way of until the up coming income, it becomes an alternative when funds are required for an immediate concern such as a expenses. When you are smart and only employing online payday loans when needed, every little thing ought to be okay. Keep these suggestions at heart when you have an economic urgent.

Important Considerations For Using Online Payday Loans

Get urgent $ 800 cash advance credit card canada Las Vegas Nevada within next business day Get $700 tonight fast wire transfer. You can also apply urgent $ 1000 cashland locations Pittsburgh, PA no checking account .

Payday cash loans are a fantastic supporting palm to a lot of folks. People need a bit drive sometimes. Most people are faced with cash issues so don’t feel awful when it happens to you. Please read on for some helpful tips relating to online payday loans and also to understand whether or not those are the appropriate choice for you.

Payday lenders utilize all types of methods to get around interest rate laws that happen to be intended for safeguarding customers. Charges will soon add up to nullify a small monthly interest. This may soon add up to above ten times the quantity of a typical loan that you would obtain.

Occasionally men and women would wind up seeking dollars and there’s not one other choice but to take a pay day loan. If possible, do not sign up for a cash advance. Visit your close friends, your family members as well as to your workplace to acquire cash before you apply for a payday loan.

Before you take out a payday advance, ensure you know the repayment conditions. These loans carry high interest rates and rigid penalty charges, and also the prices and fees and penalties only improve should you be delayed making a settlement. Do not obtain a loan just before fully looking at and learning the conditions to prevent these problems.

Due to the fact loan companies have made it very easy to obtain a payday loan, many individuals use them while they are not inside a situation or crisis circumstance. This could lead to individuals to grow to be cozy make payment on high interest rates and once an emergency develops, these are in a unpleasant position because they are already overextended.

Before committing to a payday loan, try to get a financial loan from in other places. Even when you are receiving income advancements with credit cards, you may spend less across a pay day loan. Talk to your family and friends to see if they may help you out as well.

Make certain you have the proper details related to online payday loans. You’ll probably have to give evidence of employment. A good example of this is a pay out stub. Also allow them to have your own phone number. Having the incorrect info on submit or experiencing info lacking will only create a postpone from the time it requires to acquire the loan.

Before completing your cash advance, study every one of the fine print inside the arrangement. Payday cash loans can have a lots of legitimate language hidden inside them, and sometimes that lawful words can be used to cover up hidden charges, higher-listed later costs along with other stuff that can destroy your wallet. Before you sign, be clever and know precisely what you are putting your signature on.

Think about all of the payday advance options prior to choosing a cash advance. While most lenders require pay back in 14 days, there are some loan providers who now provide a 30 day phrase that may meet your needs greater. Various payday advance loan companies may also supply diverse payment choices, so pick one that meets your requirements.

Usually do not rest about your earnings in order to qualify for a payday advance. This can be not a good idea mainly because they will give you greater than you are able to pleasantly manage to shell out them again. As a result, you are going to result in a even worse finances than you have been currently in.

Payday cash loans are generally due inside of 14 events of taking out the borrowed funds. You are given a choice either to visit the business office to pick up the check you published and spend the money for financial loan off or let the pay day loan place of work to publish the check you authored in your banking institution for payment.

When filling in a software for a cash advance, it is recommended to search for some form of producing which says your details will never be marketed or shared with any person. Some paycheck financing web sites will provide important information away such as your deal with, social stability amount, and so forth. so be sure to stay away from these companies.

Rates of interest on online payday loans are high. Which is countrywide typical for pay day loans, while there is a bit national variety. Take a look at your lender’s conditions to learn how their amount comes even close to the countrywide average. You might have to study a bit much closer, since that small print is known for hiding specifics.

There isn’t question that the payday advance may help for someone that’s not able to take care of an urgent situation condition which comes up abruptly. Even so, you should learn a good deal about the numerous monetary choices for your use to generate a sensible decision. Make use of the assistance within this bit, and that will be simple to complete.

Your Apettite supressant 37.5 milligram Dose Information

Despite the fact that Apettite supressant 37.5 milligram  is the most used and effectively-known Apettite supressant 37.5 milligrams dosage, you’ll find many doses from which to choose in terms of becoming given phentermine. So, discover confident which is the best Apettite supressant 37.5 milligram medication dosage in your case, or you might be questioning why your doctor has recommended a selected dosage, then most of us have the answers in your case!

The Apettite supressant 37.5 milligram Dosage Alternatives
Despite the fact that worldwide Apettite supressant 37.5 milligrams makes such as Duromine can be bought in higher levels, the Apettite supressants 37.5 milligrams levels obtainable in the usa vary from 15mg to 37.5mg. The milligrams or milligram sum means volume of Apettite supressant 37.5 mg hydrochloride (Apettite supressants 37.5 milligram HCL) in each tablet or pill. Phentermine 37.5 milligram HCL may be the component of Phentermine 37.5 milligram and Apettite supressants 37.5 mg makes like Adipex. Apettite supressants 37.5 milligrams tablets and capsules incorporate other substances these are lazy ‘filler’ ingredients which are not taken into account when discussing the Apettite supressants 37.5 mg serving.
Generic apettite supressants, which is the term for Apettite supressants 37.5 milligrams from made by a variety of pharmaceutical drug firms as ‘phentermine’, instead of any brand name, is available in 15mg, 30mg, and 37.5mg levels. While Phentermine 37.5 mg supplements can be bought in doses of 15mg, 30mg and 37.5mg, Apettite supressant 37.5 mg pills are just available in the greatest medication dosage of 37.5mg. Even so, some physicians choose to order the 37.5mg Phentermine 37.5 mg pills to be break up by 50 %, to be used possibly as two doasage amounts of 18.75mg in the daytime, or as fifty percent a capsule each day.
Probably the most effectively-identified Apettite supressants 37.5 milligrams model, Adipex, comes in equally supplement and capsule kind, but is only for sale in the maximum serving of 37.5mg. In comparison, the Apettite supressant 37.5 milligrams brand Ionamin is only for sale in supplement variety in doasage amounts of 15mg and 30mg. Phentermine 37.5 mg is also like an by mouth disintegrating product (ODT) beneath the name Suprenza, perfect when you have problems ingesting pills and standard supplements, referred to as dysphagia. Suprenza comes in 15mg and 30 milligram dosages, nevertheless because of the way today sets out to break down right away, these dosages are equivalent to a base Phentermine 37.5 milligrams medication dosage of 12mg and 24mg correspondingly.
What Determines Your Apettite supressant 37.5 milligram Dose?
If the medical professional chooses that Apettite supressant 37.5 mg from fits your needs, they might establish your serving in line with the quantity of excess weight you need to drop, your age, life style, and if you have additional health concerns, between additional circumstances.
Generally speaking, doctors will recommend the lowest serving of a medication needed to provide the desired results. Nonetheless, in the case of Apettite supressants 37.5 milligrams it’s very standard for patients taking Phentermine 37.5 milligram to begin with the utmost dose of 37.5mg for two main motives. First of all, Phentermine 37.5 milligram supplements tend to be typically recommended than supplements, and next, typically the most popular Apettite supressants 37.5 mg brand, Adipex, is simply available in this highest serving. Furthermore, as Apettite supressants 37.5 milligrams is intended for that brief-phrase control over obesity, and it is generally recommended for 12 weeks at any given time, each doctors and individuals usually see that using best dosage is the easiest method to increase person’s limited time about the treatment. So, if you’re new to Apettite supressants 37.5 mg and you have been given the utmost 37.5mg dosage, this is certainly quite common.
Some doctors suggesting Apettite supressants 37.5 milligrams supplements may well counsel you to get started on your Apettite supressant 37.5 milligram prescribed by subtracting 50 % an all natural pill, comparable to 18.75mg, for the first few days. This gives your system to get accustomed to the effects of appetite suppression and extra power more steadily, and ensures that the medial side results for example dry mouth and sleep loss should be docile than if you were using the complete 37.5mg dose. Additionally, your doctor may well let you know to split the serving and consider 18.75mg before morning meal and again prior to lunch break to distribute the consequences out during the day, that is specially valuable should you generally experience yearnings later on within the morning.

Apettite supressant 37.5 mg medication dosage
Should your medical doctor decides to recommend you Apettite supressants 37.5 milligram in supplement kind, then they may have more selection in terms of deciding which dosage is more suited to you. Apettite supressants 37.5 mg people getting tablets will start on both 15mg, 30mg, or 37.5mg, or another highlight is an opportunity to take two 15mg pills per day, dividing your serving through one particular ahead of breakfast every day and something just before lunch. If it is believed that you are sensitive to the effects of phentermine, or you have previously knowledgeable sensitivity to prescription drugs, then will tend to be prescribed the cheapest Apettite supressant 37.5 milligrams dosage of 15mg first of all. Additionally, when you have other difficulties or medications to take into consideration, less dosage could be far better stay away from the possibility of an discussion. If you’re approved the 15mg Apettite supressants 37.5 milligrams dose in the first place, your physician may want for you to get to 30mg pill after a certain period of time, or you may well be encouraged to consider one 15mg supplement each morning and a second 15mg pill prior to lunch break. But, if 15mg is enough that you should regularly achieve the preferred results then it wouldn’t be necessary to increase the medication dosage.
Will A Larger Apettite supressant 37.5 milligrams Medication dosage Indicate Quicker Weight Reduction?
Although a lot of men and women believe that a better Apettite supressant 37.5 mg medication dosage will assist them to achieve greater benefits and lose fat more quickly, it is not as easy as that. Larger doses use a higher concentration of Phentermine 37.5 mg HCL, but due to individual variations in the way our systems metabolize drugs, it doesn’t mean that a higher medication dosage could be more effective for everybody. Using a greater Apettite supressant 37.5 milligram dose, the two unwanted effects and desired outcomes might be as well strong for many individuals. Electrical systems, even though reduce levels of Phentermine 37.5 milligrams often give patients a lesser number of side effects, they could not necessarily give people the actual required connection between appetite suppression and added power to some ample sufficient stage for them to really modify the habits of rats and effectively lose fat. For that reason, it can be a clear case of receiving the right Apettite supressants 37.5 milligrams medication dosage for that personal, which can often be a balanced exercise among decreasing side effects and increasing weight loss. The correct Apettite supressants 37.5 milligram serving for you is certainly one that enables you to moderate your appetite, increases your time and determination, but that does not result in your any difficult unwanted effects.
If a lower serving of Apettite supressants 37.5 mg is helping you to suppress desire for food and include power which is helping you to lose weight then this is a great point, as it implies your body is not gathering quite as much of a effectiveness against the Phentermine 37.5 mg mainly because it would if you were to consider the optimum dose. It is also most likely that any negative effects you might be suffering from are slight and feasible. By comparison, those that start off on the 37.5mg dosage end up watching they suffer from a lot more extreme unwanted effects, which could subsequently stall their weight damage progress. By way of example, unwanted effects including insomnia can adversely influence weight reduction as snooze is vital to make sure that your body is burning fat and maintaining a steady metabolism. It is usually normal for people to quit taking Phentermine 37.5 mg totally as a result of extremity of unwanted effects for a lot of sufferers. If you find that your dosage might be way too robust for you, we may advise you to communicate with a medical expert about having a lower dosage for that 1st couple of weeks to allow for your body to get used to the end results.  Similarly, if you think that your dosage is too low knowning that Phentermine 37.5 milligram is not helping control your desire for food and enhance vitality then you should not improve your serving with no first becoming exclusively told to do this through your doctor.

work along with a lawyer to be able to determine exactly what you could do regarding child custody accommodations

In order to be a successful Internet marketer one must network with other marketers to build their business and reputation. Most marketers do not realize the importance of this, miss some excellent opportunities, and capitalize on networking with other Internet marketers.

There are networking tips for Internet marketers that can catapult their online business, put them in front of their competition, and increase their popularity with search engines and Internet users all around the world.

Every one of us has different experiences and knowledge but we all have unique information that can be helpful to others. You need to think of yourself as an important resource of information. Most marketers have more knowledge in some areas of their business and should share that knowledge with other marketers to build their reputation.

Networking is a two way street, be useful to others as you gain information from others. By sharing your information and showing gratitude, you will become someone that people will want to work with. Always think of ways to help each new person that you meet.

By networking and making new contacts you will be able to become more knowledgeable with a wider range of subjects and techniques to take your business to a new level. By taking action and having the courage to meet new people will only make you more knowledgeable and more of an asset to others.

Realize that your positive attitude and self-confidence is an important asset in gaining new contacts and making a solid good first impression. By doing this you will gain trust; be looked at as a successful Internet marketer.

Having good discipline and being proactive about gaining information you want or need. Getting to know the people that may be able to help you with the information that you are looking to gain, will also give you a new contact to add to your network.

When making a promise be sure to follow up and do everything in your powers to see that the promise is kept. By doing, this you become a valuable asset and a trusted marketer that keeps your word.

Whenever needed always express thank you by letter or by e-mail. If possible, do it verbally and in correspondence. By doing this you acknowledge the importance of their information or services, gain a new contact, and build a business relationship and trust.

By building, your reputation and building a network of new contacts you will be able to build a solid business. Remember everyone needs help in different areas of their business, by sharing your knowledge with others you may gain the knowledge that you need. When looking for information that you need and being persistent, you will gain the knowledge and build your network at the same time.

Increase Search Rankings With These Tips

Gaining a popular location at the top of search engine results isn’t that difficult if you know precisely how Google rates websites. The initial thing each and every small business operator needs to realize is the basics involving seo. In past times, search term usage seemed to be very important. Right now, it is actually a minor detail. Naturally, it’s needed to utilize certain keywords so the various search engines will fully understand how to index the web page. Even so, it really is much more crucial for a company to generate it’s site as an authority in the industry. Enterprises do this through publishing fresh information frequently and also sharing it on social networking. If the information is intriguing along with stimulating, men and women discuss it with their close friends and firms should be able to see their standing enhancing by means of their reputation management platform. Along with social websites shares, positive web-based evaluations may also have a massive impact on a company’s search engine ranking. It’s essential for organizations to track these particular responses by way of a review management platform for them to respond to adverse or even impartial reviews and take care of complications prior to when they are everywhere on the Internet. There are so many internet sites where a consumer may leave an assessment, it’s extremely hard to successfully keep an eye on them all without assistance. An application similar to Chatmeter can make this process effortless and warn organizations any time someone brings up their business on the web. While some businesses have success selling to a intercontinental economy, others do much better advertising and marketing their solutions to a single distinct location. Local companies need to do some extremely particular tasks in order to make certain their site attains a higher ranking. The most important move is always to fill out the My Business user profile on Google then monitor the outcome with a local seo management platform. Keeping track of is important for almost any firm that desires to have and keep near the top of search engine rankings. Business people start brand new organizations daily and each of them would like a prime location on Yahoo. Present organizations have an advantage as their websites will be more established but when the firm does not continuously post fresh content material and keep an eye on just what consumers are saying online, that place could be forfeited completely to another firm.

Drinking straw machine information

Drinking Straw Making Machine data
drinking straw machinePP drinking straw

Drinking straw machine have 1 color, 2 colors,3 colors,4 colors,5 colors
drinking straw diameter from 3mm to 15mm.

This model is a tube extrusion line, composed of extruder and die ,Vacuum calibration and cooling unit,haul-off unit, rotary cutter unit, The series machines can produce all kinds of drinking straw,spiral strip straw,medical pipe, all the machine’s controls base with the control elements ergonomically adapted to permit easy operation.
TECHNICAL FEATURE 1.The extrusion die can be special designed and easy exchanged to produce pipe and shaping stuff, 2.Water bath in stainless steel can be adjusted in three planes , 3.The haul-off unit can be belt or rollers, it is customizable. 4.Fitted with single or double rotary cutter .

Video of drinking straw making machine
Kingdom Machine Co.,ltd Ruian Economic Zone,Wenzhou,China 325200
Tel.:0086-577-65127709      Fax:0086-577-66881311
 Whatsapp:0086-13958812663 , 


Crucial Advice And Tips Regarding Pay Day Loans

Get quick $ 700 Laredo Texas within one day Get $700 tonight fast wire transfer. You can also apply urgent $ 900 Buffalo New York no credit check .

Folks get payday cash loans to help with emergency situations. Sometimes unexpected points could happen that can leave you desperate for dollars. Just before getting associated with any payday loan provider, it is wise to read the part beneath to obtain some beneficial details.

If you’re thinking about biting the bullet and taking advantage of payday loans, you need to know that the level of attention you’ll be billed is incredibly higher. Occasionally when a particular company probably have interest levels up to 150% – 200% for long intervals. This sort of creditors exploit legal loopholes in order to demand this kind of interest.

How much cash you be eligible to borrow using a payday advance may differ. Your wages degree will significantly impact the amount of money that you will get. Your loan company will do the mathematics and let you really know what your optimum feasible amount borrowed is. This is one thing you have to think of before you take a loan out when you’re trying to purchase something.

A fast check with the internet site of the BBB (Greater Enterprise Bureau) is usually a good thought prior to deciding to finalize your selection of pay day loan service provider. You will find predatory loan providers who would like to take advantage of your financial disaster. Make sure you realize in the event the firms you are considering are questionable or genuine.

Study properly. Don’t just choose the very first business the thing is. Get information about others to locate a reduced level. Though you need to spend some additional time about this, you are going to preserve a ton of money down the line. Occasionally the firms are of help enough to offer you at-a-look information.

If you are taking out a pay day loan, make certain you can afford to pay for it rear inside one or two days. Online payday loans must be utilized only in emergency situations, if you truly have no other alternatives. Once you obtain a payday loan, and could not spend it back without delay, 2 things come about. First, you will need to shell out a charge to help keep re-extending the loan before you can pay it back. 2nd, you retain obtaining incurred a lot more curiosity.

Will not feel you might be very good once you protected financing by way of a fast loan company. Be sure to always keep all of your documents, and label the date your loan is due. Failing to pay for with the time frame could result in becoming billed a lot of cash.

Steer clear of getting a payday advance except if it is really an unexpected emergency. The amount that you pay in interest is extremely sizeable on these sorts of financial loans, so it is not worth the cost if you are buying one on an each day reason. Get yourself a financial institution financial loan when it is something that can wait for a while.

A growing number of businesses are showing up and providing payday loans. A payday advance supplies a modest amount of funds lent until finally your following paycheck. This financial loan is made for a brief phrase. For the reason that loans are of the a short length, their interest charges are typically extremely high, but these kinds of financial loans could be very useful in cases of genuine emergencies.

Ensure you recognize how the payday loan firm will make use of your details before you apply for a financial loan. There are lots of payday loan companies readily available which offer distinct stipulations. Prior to getting a cash advance, look at the stipulations and rates.

Get in touch with the payday advance business if, there is a issue with the repayment schedule. Anything you do, don’t go away. These businesses have relatively hostile series sectors, and can be hard to cope with. Prior to they consider you delinquent in repayment, just contact them, and let them know what is happening.

Paying down a pay day loan immediately is definitely the best way to go. Spending it away right away is definitely a good thing to perform. Funding the loan via numerous extensions and paycheck cycles affords the interest time for you to bloat the loan. This may swiftly amount to repeatedly the amount you loaned.

The requirement for online payday loans are typically unexpected. Lease may be due before you shell out it. Though payday loans are made to aid you with these items, it’s vital that you know all you can about the subject. It is possible to take on your financial difficulties without difficulty furnished with this information.

Athens – What To See And How To See It


There are so many aspects of current civilization that were birthed in ancient Athens. Among these are theatre, philosophy, democracy, classical art and even the Olympic games. Athens is located on the southern coast of Greece and has existed for over 7,000 years providing a rich culture expressed in a diverse setting. The term diverse fits as you will find ancient relics and sites in some of the same areas where there are trendy boutiques and sidewalk cafes all mixed in together. This mixture of the very old and the new create a very unique experience provided nowhere in the world like it is provided in the ancient city of Athens. You will need to be sure your passport is up to day so if you need to add passport pages, be sure to go online and access a passport site to help you with this so you can be on you way.

World travel requires a passport but computers have simplified all passport needs. Even if you have to get an emergency passport, an online passport is available to help you. No one plans to have their travel documents lost or stolen but if this happens, help is as close as the nearest computer.

Athens is a city that contains many sites that make history come alive so this is certainly the ideal place for lovers of history to visit. High on top of the Acropolis you will find the Parthenon. This famous sight has earned the honor of being named as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Investigating these ruins takes you back to sights names in Greek Mythology related to gods and goddesses, the titans and many other mythological characters. Admission to this site also opens the Theatre of Dionysus, the Roman Agora and the Temple of Olympian Zeus to the traveler.

Being the birthplace of the performing arts, it is no wonder that the arts and culture are very important to the Athenians. While the National Gallery is certainly large and well known, many smaller art galleries populate the city. Athens is also host to approximately 148 theatres so if you are in the mood for a show, the difficult part will be which performance to see. Among the theatres is the famous Herodes Atticus Theatre.

Using a bike or even walking around this city is a wonderful way to see the sights. Green space is always welcome when you travel to big cities and the National Garden of Athens provides an exceptional treat. Within it can be found a small zoo, ponds with ducks, colorful flowers and beautiful landscape with no shortage of a shady tree to relax under and consider the sights of the day.

For those who would like to shop till your drop, your experience will be a little different in Athens. Rather than large malls and strip centers, you will find street vendors selling custom crafts rather than name brand items. Some of the most visited markets are found on Plaka, Kolonaki and Ermou Street. You will find endless selections of shoes, purses and jewelry if you visit here and the quality will certainly not disappoint you.

Authentic cuisine is always interesting in a foreign city and Athens is no exception to this rule. Known for their souvlaki, which is comprised of grilled meat, veggies and a special yogurt sauce, this Athenian staple is considered a treat by all who try it.


Athens – Church of Agioi Theodoroi


Crossing Odos Dragatsaniou, in the end stands the attractive medieval church of Agioi Theodoroi (St. Theodore), built on the site of a church founded in the ninth century, but in its present form dating from between 1050 and 1075. This small cruciform church with its high narrow dome, multiple roofs that lend it an air of rhythmic grace, narrow mullioned windows and decorated central door surmounted by arches, is a precious gem of eleventh century Byzantine architecture.

The earliest form of Byzantine churches was that of the basilica, a long rectangle divided by two or four ranges of columns into three or five naves. Later, during the 11th and 12th centuries, the plan changed to that of a Greek cross within a square, dominated by a dome constructed in brick and often combined with one or more subsidiary domes. The exterior walls consist of square-cut stone with thin brick surrounds and are enriched by bands of decoration, carving and the use of color. Few of these churches were large. Apart from St. Theodore, typical examples are the churches of Kapnikarea and St. Eleutherios.

The glory of the Byzantine church lies not so much in the architecture as to the ethereal beauty of its mosaics or frescoes. From the center of the principal dome Christ looks down upon the faithful and below Him are the Apostles. The Virgin appears in the half dome, while around the sanctuary are symbolic figures and emblems connected with the Eucharist. On the West wall opposite the chancel is the Last Judgement. Colored marble and similar material in the lower walls add to the resplendent beauty of the interior.

The liturgy of the Greek Orthodox Church requires separation of the altar from the laity. The altar is placed in a chancel screened from the congregation by the iconostasis, i.e. the screen dividing the sanctuary from the church proper. This is adorned with pictures of Christ, the Virgin, and Saints, and generally has three doors, the curtains of which are lowered while Mass is being celebrated. The chancel is flanked by the Prothesis, where the bread and wine for the Eucharist are prepared, and by the Diakonikon, or vestry.

In St. Theodore one can also notice the influence of the East on Byzantine art, which was prominent in the period from the mid-9th to mid-11th centuries, when Byzantine artists used a variety of Oriental motifs in their designs. It is probable that the design of pseudo-kufic characters (the script perfected during the 7th century by calligraphers in the city of Kafa, in present-day Iraq) that decorate the terracotta panel below the windows of the facade was inspired by the work of Arab craftsmen.


The Acropolis – Athens, Goddess Athena


Archaeologists tell us that the original city of Athens was situated on the Acropolis. Even in classical times, the Athenians still referred to this area as “the City.” The city of Athens and its patron goddess emerge into the light of history as inseparably coupled. In Mycenaean times each city was built around a central palace, and each palace was under the protection of its patron goddess. Athena was the goddess of the palace on the Acropolis. The names of the city and its goddess are essentially the same: Athena was Athens, and Athens was Athena. She was “The Athenian.” The ancient Athenians seem to have exhibited, during much of their history, precisely those virtues which they traditionally attributed to her. This may be because, when the Athenians imagined their goddess, they did so in their own image.

According to the myth, Zeus fell in love with a beautiful titaness, Metis (“Cunning Intelligence”). Although she repeatedly changed her shape to avoid his unwelcome attentions, as was his way, he persisted. In the end he caught up with her and raped her.

An oracle then announced that Metis would bear Zeus two children: first a daughter then, a son, and the son would be mightier than his father. Just as Zeus had once overthrown and dispossessed his own father, Chronos, so he was destined in his turn, to be overthrown by his own son. In a desperate attempt to avoid sharing his father’s fate, Zeus gave Metis a potion of drugged ambrosia, and then swallowed her whole.

Some time afterwards a terrible headache came upon him. In great pain, he sought the advice of Hermes, whose only suggestion was that Hephaestos, the smith of the gods, should open his head in order to allow the cause of his pain to escape. Zeus was so desperate that even this drastic remedy was preferable to doing nothing, and Hephaestos was duly summoned to cleave open Zeus’ head with his mighty axe. When he did so, to the astonishment of all the immortals, Athena sprang out with a great war-cry, fully-formed, wearing armour and bearing arms.

Zeus’ daughter not only became the patron of many arts at that time normally considered masculine preserves, such as ceramics, she was also credited with a distinctly unfeminine warlike nature. When the Olympian gods were faced with a titanic struggle against the giants, Athena played a major role in the war, defeating the giant Enkelados in single combat. She came to be depicted not merely as a virgin goddess, but, as an ancient Roman writer put it, as a virago: as a female capable of playing a leading role in a world dominated by men.

It came to be said that the reason for the birth of this goddess lay in a wager between Zeus and his consort, Hera, as to which of them could generate the better progeny entirely alone and unaided. By herself, Hera managed to produce only the crippled god, Hephaestos and a monster; while Zeus was able to bring forth, in Athena, one of the greatest of the Immortals.

This seems to have been a picturesque reference to a widespread belief, which was to appear later in the works of the philosopher Aristotle: that the father alone is responsible for generating his children, and for providing them with their inherited characteristics, and that their mother affords them nothing more than a temporary shelter and sustenance in her womb during her pregnancy.

This is a striking example of the strong climate of male chauvinism which dominated the early classical period in ancient Greece, which is very evident in myth and legend.